Oil

Agrioil Slide Olio

EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL P.D.O. “COLLINE SALERNITANE”

Extra virgin olive oil P.D.O. “Colline Salernitane” boasts a very old origin, it comes from autochthonous varieties that have always existed in the territory of Salerno.

This oil owes its typical character to the special quality of its territory, distinguishing itself for absolutely original pedoclimatic, landscape, historical and cultural characteristics.

The cultivation techniques and methods followed to obtain this high quality  product are also absolutely traditional.

For “cultivar” or “cultivated variety” we mean the different varieties of olives cultivated in a well defined geographical area. Agrioil uses varieties of olives such as Rotondella, Frantoio, Carpellese, Ogliarola and Leccino.

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ROTONDELLA

Synonyms

Mannella, marinella, minutella, olivella, ritonnella, Romanella, tonella, tonnella, tunnella.

Origin, spread, importance

Of unknown origin. From the trunk size of some specimens, we can say that it, by itself or together with the Pisciottana type of olive tree, is the olive tree introduced in Italy by the Phoceans at the time of Velia foundation (540-546 b.C.). It is the most widespread variety within the provincial territory of Salerno. Its name probably derives from its almost round shape. It is a much appreciated variety for its productivity, yield and quality of oil.

Agronomical characteristics

The plant is quite robust and grows tall and straight. It is considered to be self-incompatible. It steadily alternates periods of non production with periods of production. Quite precocious veraison, with gradual apex. Sensitive to fly and scab attacks only if it is close to other infected plants, on the contrary it is resistant to peacock spot, it resists low temperatures as well as drought, quite well. Yield around 23%.

ROBUSTNESS LEVEL: medium
GROWTH TREND: tall and straight
FOLIAGE: compact and thick
NOTES: fruit bearing branches are frail, that is why they break easily during picking

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FRANTOIO

Synonyms

Oliva lunga(Long olive), Correggiolo, Frantoiano, Comune, Solciaro, Nostrato, Raggio, Rajo, Razza, Raggiolo, Crognolo, Razzo, Gentile, Bresa Fina, Infrantoio, Laurino, Pendaglio, Pignatello, Stringona.

Origin, spread, importance

Coming from Tuscany, it is widespread all over Italy and in almost all the olive growing areas in the world. Its so extended cultivation is linked to the high and steady productivity of this cultivar, but, above all, to the recognized quality of this oil. It is highly sensitive to the peacock spot, and scarcely resists adverse climatic conditions (cold), scab and fly.

Agronomical characteristics

Self-fertile, it takes advantage of cross-pollination (“Americano”, “Leccino”, “Maurino”, “Mignolo” and “Pendolino”). “Frantoio” variety has resulted to be a good pollinator for many other cultivars. In general ovary abortion does not overcome 10%; in some studies abortion values have been found as close to 1%. Fructification rate is high and steady. Maturation is scalariform and late. The oil is really precious, fine, tasty, aromatic.

ROBUSTNESS LEVEL: medium
GROWTH HABIT: semi-pendant
FOLIAGE: expanded and quite thick;
NOTES: fruit bearing long and thin branches with rising tops

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CARPELLESE

Synonyms

Cluster olive, raceme olive, pendant olive, weeping olive, olivo a trezza, salicegna.

Origin, spread, importance

Unknown origin. Much widespread in the area of the High Sele river and High Calore river, but above all in the countryside territory and in the neighbourhood of towns. It is a much appreciated variety for its productivity, yield and above all for the fine quality of its oil.

Agronomical characteristics

The plant is medium-very robust and is growth habit is pendant. It is considered to be self-compatible. It does not alternate period of non production with periods of production, but it continuously produces and is particularly inclined to other productions. Late veraison, from the apex, gradual. Sensitive to fly attacks but less than Rotondella, quite sensitive to the scab, sensitive to the peacock spot but less than Rotondella, its level of resistance to draught and low temperatures is quite good. Yield around 20%.

ROBUSTNESS LEVEL: medium -high
GROWTH HABIT: pendant
FOLIAGE: compact and thick
NOTES:

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OGLIAROLA

Synonyms

Nostrale di Lauro

Origin, spread, importance

Of old but unknown origin. It is widespread all over the hilly area of Lauro valley, as well as in the territory of the towns of Castel San Lorenzo and Roccadaspide. In both areas, this cultivar represents a higher percentage. It is a well appreciated variety for its productivity, yield and quality of its oil.

Agronomical characteristics

The plant is really robust, it grows tall and straight but with many fruit bearing branches that are prone to be pendant.It is considered to be self-compatible. It does not alternate periods of non production with periods of production.It blossoms precociously. Medium gradual veraison, starting from the apex. Sensitive to fly attacks, resistant to the scab and the peacock spot. Yield 18 – 22%.

ROBUSTNESS LEVEL: high
GROWTH HABIT: tall and straight
FOLIAGE: compact and thick
NOTES: many fruit bearing branches prone to be pendant

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LECCINO

Synonyms

Leccio, Premice, Silvestrone.

Origin, spread, importance

Its origin is still rather uncertain. It is mentioned in the literature as cultivar found both within the area of Florence and in that of Pistoia. It is cultivate in all the Italian olive growing areas and in the main olive growing areas in the world. “Leccino” variety is particularly resistant to climatic adversities (cold, fog, and winds) and some pathologies (scab, peacock spot and rot). Viceversa, this cultivar has showed a particular sensitivity to sooty mould.

Agronomical characteristics

Self-sterile. The flowers are faulty only in a little percentage (abortion percentage lower than 10%). Very good pollinator have resulted to be the varieties: “Gremignolo di Bolgheri”, “Maremmano”, “Pendolino” and “Morchiaio”; quite good: “Piangente”, “Frantoio” and “Trillo”. It blossoms at the end of May, at the beginning of June and fructification takes place mainly in the base and central areas of branches. Production rate is high and its rhythm is steady, while maturation is precocious and homogeneous. Fruits are used both for oil extraction and as table “black” olives.

GROWTH HABIT: semipendant
FOLIAGE: expanded and thick
ROBUSTNESS LEVEL: high
NOTES: the branches, being often pendant, have got rising tops and rather short internodes.

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PRODUCTION PROCESS

Picking The picking of olives is carried out in the period of the year ranging between October and January. Picking can take place in two different ways: by picking up olives from the tree branches by the help of special “combs”, or by causing them to fall down by means of “shaker” machines, which, by causing the mechanic falling down of olives, allow to reduce the costs of manpower.

Cleaning and Washing After picking olives must be cleaned and washed, by the clearing process olives are separated from foreign matters such as leaves and little branches, then olives are washed.

Pressing, kneading and extraction Within 24 hours from their picking, olives are crushed and reduced into a paste: a synchronism which is fundamental to produce high quality extra-virgin olive oil. The extraction of oil from olives, which is partly similar to what has been done for millennia, takes place into three steps: crushing, kneading and actual extraction. Pressing allows the crushing of the pulp and the stones and is carried out by millstones or by the most modern and fastest hammer olive presses. Kneading consists of a gentle stirring of the paste which, by breaking down the emulsions water-oil formed during crushing favours the subsequent extraction of oil. The last step in oil production is extraction. The extraction methods are two: the traditional one, which extracts oil by pressing the paste distributed into layers on pressing mats (big disks),and the modern (or continuous) one, which obtains oil by centrifugation of the paste.

According to the traditional method the olive paste is spread on fibre disks (pressing mats), which are piled up on the oil press axis. The liquid obtained, which is called oil-must, is then centrifuged, in order to separate it from vegetable water. According to the modern method, the olive paste is centrifuged at about 4 thousand revolutions per minute. In this way the solid part is separated from the liquid part and the component parts of the latter, oil and water, are separated.

Separation and clarification The oil extracted from the paste must be cleared out of all foreign residues and vegetable water, in which most of the residues remain. This step is carried out by decantation or centrifugation, which is the most widespread method. After separation by centrifugal force, oil clarification follows by subsequent decanting stages or by light filtering.

Storage Oil has got two natural enemies, light and air. Therefore it must be stored in the dark and in sealed containers, in order that it does not oxidize. Clay amphora vessels and jars have been used for centuries. Whatever shape material containers are made of, they must be easily washable; they must have an inclined bottom and be provided with a valve for sediment expulsion and above all, they must be light and air proof and particularly smell proof, since bad smells contaminate oil very easily.

OIL VARIETIES

The classification of olive oils follows an only set of regulatory guidelines within the European Community and classifies the different types of olives according to a number of chemical-physical characteristics and by the help of sensorial analysis. A first classification distinguishes virgin olive oils (obtained by only olive pressing) from olive oils (obtained by chemical refining).

Virgin olive oil:

Extra-virgin olive oil:
virgin olive oil in which the maximum free acid rate, expressed as oleic acid, is 0.8 g. per 100 g.

Virgin olive oil:
virgin olive oil in which the maximum free acid rate, expressed as oleic acid, is 2 g. per 100 g.

Lampante virgin olive oil:
virgin olive oil in which free acid rate expressed as oleic acid exceeds 2 g. per 100 g.

The virgin olive oil obtained by pressing is the oil obtained from the olive fruit only by means of mechanical or physical processes, using heat to easily extract it in amounts such as not to cause alterations of the oil itself. Olives do not undergo any other treatment than washing, decantation, centrifugation and filtering.

Olive oil obtained from chemical refining:

Refined olive oil:
olive oil obtained from the refining of virgin olive oils, in which free acid rate, expressed as oleic acid, can exceed 0.3 g. per 100 g.

Olive oil:
olive oil obtained from a mixture of refined olive oil and virgin olive oils different from lampante oil, in which free acid rate cannot exceed 1 g. per 100 g.

Raw olive residue oil:
oil obtained by processing it with a solvent of olive residues, not including the oils obtained by re-esterification processes and any mixture made with oils of different kinds.

Refined residue olive oil:
oil obtained from the refining of raw olive residue oil, in which free acid rate cannot exceed 0.3 g. per 100 g.

Olive residue oil:
oil obtained from a mixture of refined olive residue oil and virgin olive oils different from lampante oil, in which fee acid rate cannot exceed 1 g. per 100 g.

TASTING TEST

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To taste for choosing: oil tasting must be made far from meals and it is better to have your mouth free from coffee, sweet tastes, and smoking smelling effects or any other thing that may affect tasting. It is better that it is not cold and to avoid tasting in places in which there are strong smells such as deodorants, perfumes or cleansing product smells.

This is how to taste oil:

  1. Choose two different extra-virgin olive oils and pour one or two spoonful oil in two glasses.
  2. Warm oil up into a glass for some minutes by using the palm of your hand, in order to let oil flavours come out and to prepare yourself for the first step of sensorial analysis.
  3. Smell the flavours of the oil contained into the glass and memorize your sensations.
  4. Taste a coffee spoonful of oil, without swallowing it, by trying to warm it up on your tongue, simulating chewing. Through your half-opened lips, inhale air, which by your palate conveys smells to taste buds.
  5. Memorize sensations.
  6. Expel oil and chew a little bit of bread to clean your palate.
  7. Repeat the procedure with the second oil you have chosen and compare results.

TASTERS’ LITTLE DICTIONARY

The sensations perceived from tasting are interpreted as qualities and faults.

QUALITIES
Bitter: typical taste of oil obtained from green or darkened olives. It can be more or less pleasant, according to its intensity.

Sour: sensation typical of some oils that on tasting produce a mouth-touch reaction of astringency.

Sweet: pleasant taste of the oil in which, even if it is not sugary, the qualities of bitter, astringent and hot taste do not prevail.

Grass: flavour characteristic of some oils reminiscent of the smell of freshly cut grass.

Fruity: flavour reminding the smell and taste of the sound and fresh fruit picked up at its optimal maturity.

Mature fruity: flavour of the olive oil obtained from mature fruits generally characterized by damped smell and sugary taste.

Almond flavour: this flavour can be perceived in two ways: the typical flavour of the fresh almond or the one typical of the dry and sound almond which can be confused with that of incipient rancid taste. It can be perceived as aftertaste when the oil remains in contact with the tongue and the palate. It is associated with sweet oils and oils having a damped smell.

Apple: flavour of the olive oil reminiscent of this fruit.

Spicy: tactile and biting sensation characteristic of oils produced at the beginning of the picking season, of olives being mainly still green.

FAULTS
Vegetable water: characteristic flavour of the oil that has not been decanted in the right way because of delayed contact with vegetable water.

Winey-vinegary: flavour characteristic of some oils reminiscent of wine or vinegar. It is mainly due to the formation of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and ethanol, in amounts exceeding normal rates in the flavour of olive oil.

Cucumber: flavour produced in oil that has undergone excessively long hermetically conditioning specially in cans, and which is due to the formation of 2-6 nonadienal.

Cooked or overcooked: characteristic flavour of olive oil when it has been heated too much or for too long time during production, especially during its thermal kneading, if it has taken place in unsuitable, thermal conditions.

Dregs: flavour characteristic of the oil recovered from mud deposits on presses.

Hay: flavour characteristic of some oils reminiscent of more or less dry grass.

Pressing mat: flavour of the oil obtained from olives pressed on pressing mats dirty with fermented residues.

Lubricants: smell of the olive oil obtained in an oil mill where residues of fuel oil, grease and mineral oil have not been removed from machines.

Coarse: characteristic perception of some oils that, on tasting, produce a thick and pasty oral-tactile sensation.

Metallic: flavour reminiscent of metal. This is a characteristic of olive oil which has been kept for a long time in contact with metallic surfaces during the process of milling, kneading, pressing and storage.

Mould-damp: characteristic flavour of olive oil made from olives which have developed abundant fungus and yeast, due to having been piled up for many days and in a damp atmosphere.

Rancid: flavour of olive fatty oils which have been subject to an intense, self-oxidative process, because of a prolonged contact with air. This flavour is unpleasant and irreversible.

Warming: flavour characteristic of oil obtained from piled up olives that have undergone an advanced state of fermentation.

Brine: flavour of olive oil which has been extracted from olives preserved in brine. Residue olive oil: flavour reminiscent of olive residues.

Soapy: flavour producing a smelling-tasting sensation reminiscent of green soap.

Damped or flat: flavour of olive oil characterized by very damped organoleptic properties,due to the loss of flavour components.

Esparto grass: characteristic flavour of olive oil made from olives pressed in new pressing mats made of esparto grass. It may be different if the pressing mat is made of green or dry esparto grass.

Earth: flavour of olive oil made from olives, which have been picked with, and still have on them, earth or mud and which have not been washed properly. In some cases this flavour can develop together with that of mould-damp.

Old: flavour characteristic of oil when it remains too much time in storage containers. It can also be perceived in oils remaining bottled for a too long period of time.

Worm: flavour of olive oil damaged by olive fruit fly larva (Bactrocera Oleae).

HISTORY AND TRADITIONS OF OIL

The olive tree is a plant belonging to the specie of Oleacaee, which comes from Asia Minor; today it is cultivated all over the countries of the Mediterranean basin. Its cultivation dates back from the prehistoric period when peoples lived to the south of Caucasus, in Syria and Palestine. Then the cultivation of olive trees spread over the major Greek islands (Crete, Cyprus and Rhodes), where it is possible to visit, still today, the biggest oil mill, made from lava stone, found on the island of Santorini. Later the olive tree reached the coasts of Spain and Sicily, and spread over the whole Italian peninsula and Provence. Today the olive tree cultivation area ranges between 30° and 45° northern parallel. Olive-growing can be found in northern India, Argentina, Mexico, Perù and United States too. However the best olives are those grown in Italy, where a fertile variety of soils, combined with efficient production techniques, allow to obtain a product which is really at a higher level than the European average production of olives.
Symbolism and mythology
The olive tree is the symbol of peace, according to the biblical passage of the Genesis 8,11 and is still referred to in the liturgy of the Palm Sunday.The olive tree is a sacred plant also for other civilizations. The Bible tells that when Noah was on the Ark during the flood, a dove carrying an olive branch with its beak, came to announce the end of the flood and the new alliance between God and men. According to Greek mythology, Athena, goddess of wisdom, and Poseidon, god of the sea, quarrelled for the rule of Attics. Then Zeus decided that who would bring men the most useful gift, would be the winner. Poseidon offered his horse but the winner was Athena who brought an olive branch: an immortal tree from the berries of which men would take nourishment, strength, health, beauty, light and heat for their house.
In Greece also the crowns of winners at Olympic games were made with an olive branch; during the Pianepsiae celebrations in Athens, olive branches or crowns were taken in procession. According to a certain tradition with the olive tree is also one of the three plants, together with cedar and cypressus, from which Christ’s Cross was made. The plant was thought as having fertilizing powers: from this we can deduce why the statues of Damia and Auxesia (spirits connected with land fertilization) were made from olive wood in Trezene; in Rome olive branches were often used for purification ceremonies. So, while the olive tree branch is a symbol of peace, the trunk stands for fertility and prosperity. Oil represents the divine essence.

OIL AND CUISINE
The Mediterranean diet

At Pioppi, a splendid paradise village on Cilento coast, in the heart of the National Park of Cilento, a few kilometres far from Agrioil, Ancel Keys, the American scientist who had discovered and coined the scientific term “Mediterranean diet” in 1950 (former President of the World Health Organization),built his second house, thus choosing Italy as his second homeland. When Keys arrived in Italy, he was carrying out a research for the WHO called “Seven Countries”, focused on seven countries. The scientist happened to go to Pioppi for a picnic. He had just finished his blood tests on firemen in Naples. Thy resulted to have really low cholesterol level in blood, compared with the Americans. Keys deduced that the higher rate of heart diseases was certainly typical of upper classes, but it was more in general due to diets based on a higher content of fats. Driven by curiosity about the results obtained in Campania, the American scientist went further in his researches publishing a best seller entitled “Eat well and stay well”. They were the ’50s, it is important to remember this, and the Mediterranean was just born as the best diet in the world. Ancel Keys, Mr.Cholesterol as he had been called by the “Times”, died after having reached the age of one hundred years, having found an antidote to ageing and diseases, which for us, people from Cilento is to hand: a diet privileging wholemeal and natural foods, a little meat, dairy products and eggs with moderation, pasta and bread as we like and so much absolutely extra-virgin olive oil. The presence of Keys for Cilento has represented a really important event, in terms not only of knowledge about health, but also as anthropic enhancement of men’s eating habits.

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The sacred value of food, a sense of parsimony and above all high quality food characteristics that can be found in “poor dishes”, have been the leading elements of his studies carried out by the American dietician with sharp intuition. To eat healthy food allows to keep fit. An important ingredient of the diet worked out by Ancel Keys is olive oil: its antioxidant properties delay cell decay and then ageing and death. Testimonies of Keys’ relationship with Cilento are many; his over forty year studies have produced important results that, beyond Cilento’s borders, have become humankind heritage.


agrioil_olio_salute OIL AND HEALTH

The extra-virgin olive oil represents the ideal condiment for a healthy diet. Its composition of fatty acids with a minor content of precious components, make it be unique from a nutritional and organoleptic point of view. Its qualities are appreciated not only by gourmets and gastronomists, but also by nutritionists: in it taste and substances useful for the health of our body can be found.

Benefits of the extra-virgin olive oil

The composition of the extra-virgin olive oil has really got the property of protecting blood arteries, the stomach and the liver. These are only some benefits deriving from its use, extra-virgin olive oil produces also other healthy effects:

• it lowers the level of low density lipoproteins in blood (bad cholesterol) and increases that of high density lipoproteins (good cholesterol)

• it protects mucosas and avoids effects of hyperchlorhydria, thus reducing the risk of gastric and duodenal ulcers

• it helps normalization of blood pressure and protects from cardiovascular diseases

• it promotes the secretory stimuli of the digestive system, thus inducing a better digestion

• it has got a laxative effect and helps correcting chronic constipation

• it protects cells and delays skin ageing

• it helps skin healing from burns and protects from sun irradiation

• it prevents the onset of degenerative diseases, breast cancer in particular

• it stimulates bone mineralization and the assimilation of fundamental mineral salts

agrioil_olio_benefici The other virtues of the olive tree

Modern natural therapies largely use olive leaves and bark to prepare teas and decoctions, because in them there is a concentration of special active principles exerting an anti-parasite, emollient and laxative action.

Teas

60 gr.olive dry leaves, 1lt. warm water. Wash olive leaves and let them brew in water for 24 hours. Such tea is recommended as febrifuge, if it is used on the skin it has got cicatrizant properties. 7 or 5 olive leaves (it is important that their number is always odd) 250 ml water. Wash olive leaves and dip them into a glass of water. Put the glass in a cool place and let brew for a whole night. Such tea must be drunk in the morning and is recommended to those who suffer from high blood pressure.

Decoctions

50 gr. leaves, 1 lt.sugar water. Wash olive leaves and let them boil for 10 minutes. The decoction obtained must be drunk during the day to cure catarrhal affections. 50 gr. leaves 1/2 lt. water. Wash olive leaves and let them boil for 10 minutes. The decoction obtained must be drunk during the day and is suitable to cure gout and rheumatisms. It purifies the liver, it dissolves gallstones, it cures bladder inflammations, it relieves stomach spasms and cures liver and haemorrhoid troubles.Nr.2 gentian stalks with leaves, nr.2 olive branches, nr.4 chicory leaves, nr.4 artichoke leaves, 1 lt.water. Wash leaves and stalks and let boil for one hour. The decoction obtained must be sipped during the day and cures people suffering from diabetes.


OIL AND BEAUTY

To take care of our beauty by oil “There is no part of our body that cannot benefit from the precious properties of olive oil”. Its virtues come from the very precoius substances it contains, such as squalene, phytosterols and tocopherols; from special fatty acids, such as linoleic and linolenic acid; from important vitamins (K, A, E, D) and phenolic compounds. It is this rich content that makes extra-virgin olive oil an effective emollient and protective product, as well as a very good anti-oxidant for our skin, suitable for fighting blemishes due to smoking, climate changes and pollution to which our body is continuously exposed. The great cosmetic virtues of olive oil were already known by the Egyptians who used this gods’ gift as anti-wrinkle cosmetic amalgamating it with milk, incense grains and cypress berries, by the Phoenicians who called it liquid gold, by the Greek athletes who used it for massages relaxing their muscles after physical training and by the Romans after a spa session, to restore their energy.

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